「石木ダム」を知っていますか?

長崎県東彼杵郡川棚町川原(こうばる)。

そこを流れる川棚川の支流・石木川にダム建設の計画が持ち上がってから、半世紀が過ぎました。

長崎県と佐世保市は「佐世保市の水不足解消」や「川棚川の洪水対策」をダム建設の目的としていますが、専門家によって必要性はないとわかりました

そして建設が強行されれば、川原(こうばる)に住む13世帯60人が強制的に立ち退かされます。
さらに「ホタルの里」として知られる豊かな自然も破壊されてしまうのです。

私たちは生まれ育ったこの川原に暮らし、この大好きな環境を子供たちに残したいのです。

みなさん、力をお貸しください。

Have you heard about the “Ishiki Dam”?

Koubaru, Kawatana-cho, Higashi Sonogi-gun, Nagasaki Prefecture.

Half a century has passed since the plans for constructing a dam on the Ishiki River which flows through Koubaru and is a tributary of the Kawatana River had surfaced.

Both Nagasaki prefecture and Sasebo city have stated the reasons for promoting this dam to be “solution for the water shortage in Sasebo city” and “measures for preventing flood in the Kawatana River”, however

specialists have found out that there is no need for this dam.

If the construction is forcefully implemented, 13 households and 60 residents who reside in Koubaru will be forcefully evicted from their homes and land.

It will also mean the destruction of an area known for its beauty and as the “land of fireflies”.

We want to live in Koubaru, our birth place and leave this environment that we love for our children.

We sincerely ask for your help.

1 水需要の予測は本当に正しいのだろうか? Is the water demand projection really accurate?

「佐世保市は慢性的な水不足が続いており、平成36年度には4万?もの水源不足が予測されるので、それを解決するには石木ダムを建設するしかない」と市は説明していますが、それは本当でしょうか?

平成6年の大渇水から20年、佐世保市では一度も断水は起きていません。平成20年以降、ダムの貯水率の平均は毎年90%を超えています。実際の水の使用量も年々減少しています。それは人口減少や節水機器の普及などに起因するもので、日本全国どこでも水需要は減少しています。しかし、なぜか佐世保市の予測は右肩上がり、しかも急激な増加傾向を示しています。

グラフは、平成24年度石木ダム事業再評価の際に市が示した新たな水需要予測です。一日最大給水量の予測値は26年度から急激に増加していますが、実績値は増えるどころか減少しており、その差は14,500m2にも達しています。中でも工場用水の予測値はわずか4年間で3.5倍にもなるというもので、「ダム検証のあり方を問う科学者の会」からは「極め付きの虚構」と評されました。いま27年度が始まりましたが、工場用水が6,000m2を超えると本気で思う人がいるでしょうか。水道局自身でさえ27年度予算案のために作成した資料では、その見込値は1,848m2となっています。

ダムを造るための虚構の予測を見直し、真の予測に基づき適切な水需給計画を立てることを、私たち市民は切に望んでいます。

The City of Sasebo claims that “Sasebo City has been suffering a chronic water shortage and is expecting a water source shortage of 40,000 m3 in 2024, with the only solution to remedy this issue being the construction of the Ishiki Dam”, however, is this really the truth?

For 20 years after the severe drought in 1994, water supply has never been suspended in Sasebo City. Every year since 2008, the average annual water storage rate has exceeded 90% and the actual usage of water is decreasing each year. This is due to the decreasing population and wide spread use of water-saving devices, resulting in the decline of water demand throughout Japan. However, in contradiction to these figures the projection by Sasebo city is soaring for some reason, indicating a drastic and sudden increase.

The chart below is the new water demand projection presented by Sasebo City during the reevaluation of the Ishiki Dam Project conducted in 2012. The amount of maximum water supply per day is marking a rapid increase since fiscal year 2014, however, the actual amount of usage is not increasing but rather decreasing. The gap between the projected amount and the actual figure has reached 14,500m3. The City also presented the projected use of industrial water to be 3.5 times more in a mere 4 years, that the ”Association of Scientists Questioning the Process of Verifying Dams” evaluated this projection to be “the ultimate fabrication”. Now that fiscal year 2015 has started, one wonders if there is anyone who would seriously think that the industrial water usage would exceed 6,000m3. Even the Water Supply Department itself had projected the usage to be 1,848m3 in the FY2015 budget proposal documents they had created.

We, the citizens, sincerely hope for the City to reevaluate the fictitious projection fabricated to aid the dam construction and for them to establish an appropriate water supply plan based on truthful, real projections.

2 石木ダムは川棚川の治水対策に本当に役に立つのだろうか? Will Ishiki Dam truly be effective as a measure for Kawatana River’s flood control?

川棚町民は戦後70年間に4回の洪水被害を経験していますが、最後の1990年洪水後におこなわれてきた河川改修によって対策はずいぶん進みました。改修工事のすべてが完了したら、石木ダムがなくても、この4回と同程度の大雨が降っても川は溢れないと県も認めています。それでも100年に1度の大雨に対応するには、どうしても石木ダムが必要だというのです。

しかし河川工学の専門家によると、100年に1度の大雨が降った場合の水位を計算すると、川棚川が溢れるのは非常に短い区間で、不足高も4cmほど。堤防の嵩上げをすれば十分対応でき、その費用はたいしたものではない。それよりも、野口川など他の支流の氾濫や内水氾濫の対策を講じることが急務であり、それを怠れば、仮に石木ダムを造っても1990年水害を防ぐことはできないと指摘しています。

また、近年は想定外のゲリラ豪雨なども頻発しています。想定外の大雨が降ったときは、ダムからの放流によって一気に水量が増し、かえって深刻な被害をもたらすケースも報告されています。

The citizens of Kawatana-cho have experienced 4 floods in 70 years after WWII, however, since the repair work implemented along the river after the last flood of 1990, flood control measures have improved significantly.

The Prefectural government also concedes that if all the repair works are completed, the river will not overflow even without the Ishiki dam and even with the same large volume of rainfall as was recorded in the last 4 floods. Despite their admission, they claim that the Ishiki Dam is absolutely necessary to prevent the river from flooding against a once-in-a 100 year heavy rainfall.

According to the river engineering experts who calculated the water level with a once-in-100 year heavy rain estimation, they found that the Kawatana River is projected to overflow in only a very short section and that the shortage in the height of the dike was at approximately 4cm. Flooding will be easily preventable by raising the level of the dike and the cost entailed for these measures is estimated to be quite low. There are more urgent matters such as taking measures to prevent overflow in the tributary rivers such as the Noguchi River and to prevent inland flooding. If these measures are not taken, the experts point out that even if they built the Ishiki Dam, the dam would not be able to prevent a flood from occurring with conditions seen in the 1990 flood.

In addition, we have been experiencing unexpected heavy downpour frequently in the recent years. When unanticipated heavy rain falls, the water level instantly rises with the water discharged from the dam, that there are reports on cases where the dams result in creating more serious damages.

3 ダム建設のコスト(285億円)は誰が負担するのか? Who bears the cost (28.5 billion Yen) of building the dam?

石木ダム事業は長崎県と佐世保市の共同事業で、その負担割合は県が65%(約185億円)で佐世保市が35%(約100億円)です。そして、県や市にはそれぞれ国からの補助金が交付されます。県には国土交通省から半分(92億5千万円)が、佐世保市には厚生労働省から3分の1(33億2千万円)が補助されます。つまり、石木ダムには日本国民の税金も126億円近く使われることになっています。国の抱える財政赤字は刻々と増え続け、国民一人当たりの借金額が1千万円を超えている今、税金の使い道にはよくよく吟味してほしいものです。

また、佐世保市民にとって負担額はこれだけではありません。石木ダム建設費の他に関連事業費というものがあります。川棚町にできたダムの水を佐世保市まで運ぶ導水管、その水をきれいにする浄水場、そこから送りだす配水管など関連設備の整備が必要で、これらの事業費253億円はすべて佐世保市の負担です。ダム建設費と合わせると総額は佐世保市にとって353億円にものぼりますが、この事実をほとんどの市民が知りません。そして、その財源内訳は国庫補助55億円、一般会計出資金53億円、水道局負担金245億円となっています。水需要が減り続け、水道料金収入が減り続けている水道局はどうやってこの負担金を払うことができるのでしょう? 結局は水道料金の値上げに繋がります。

佐世保市民の皆さん、それほど大きな負担を背負っても、石木ダムが必要だと考えますか?

Ishiki Dam Project is the joint project of Nagasaki Prefecture and Sasebo City, and 65% (about 18.5 billion Yen) of the cost of building the dam will be carried by Nagasaki Prefecture and 35% (about 10 billion Yen) by Sasebo City. In addition, the Prefectural government and the City office will both receive subsidy from the Japanese Government. The Prefectural government will receive subsidy for 1/2 of the cost (9.25 billion Yen) from the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transportation and Tourism, and Sasebo City will receive subsidy for 1/3 of its cost (3.32 billion Yen) from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare. This means that nearly 12.6 billion Yen from the Japanese taxpayers will be used to build the Ishiki Dam. Now that the national budget deficit is increasing every second, and the amount of debt per citizen exceeds 10 million Yen, we would like the usage of tax to be examined very, very closely.

For the citizens of Sasebo, the cost of building the dam is not the only cost they will be burdened with. In addition to the building cost for the Ishiki Dam, there is also a cost called relevant project cost which includes expense to maintain the related facilities, including water conveyance pipes, water filtration plant to purify the water carried in these pipes, and water distribution pipes. The cost for these relevant projects accounts for 25.3 billion Yen, and Sasebo City is responsible for the entire amount. The total cost of Ishiki Dam for Sasebo City will be 35.3 billion Yen, but most of the citizens are not aware of this fact. Sources to finance these cost are from the national treasury subsidy (5.5 billion Yen), money invested from the general account (5.3 billion Yen), and the Waterworks Bureau (24.5 billion Yen). How does the Waterworks Bureau plan on paying their share of these costs when the water demand continues to decrease and revenue from water bills also continue to decline? In the end, this situation will lead to the raise in water utility rates.

We ask the people of Sasebo City, do you think that the Ishiki Dam is necessary even with such a huge burden placed on you?

4 美しい川原地区と昔ながらのコミュニティーを次世代へ残さなくてよいのだろうか? Don’t we need to preserve beautiful Kobaru area and a traditional community that has been kept unchanged for future generations?

石木ダム建設予定地「川原(こうばる)」は、春は菜の花、秋はコスモスが咲き乱れ、夏にはゲンジボタルの乱舞も見られます。また、長崎県レッドデータブックの絶滅危惧Ⅰ類に指定されているカワガラス、ヤマセミ、トノサマガエル、オナガサナエ、絶滅危惧Ⅱ類に指定されているカスミサンショウウオ、ヤマトシマドジョウ、コムラサキ、クロサナエ、オジロサナエなど貴重な生き物が棲息する命あふれるスポットです。その真ん中を流れる石木川は写真では見えないほどの小さな川で、まるで唱歌『春の小川』そのままです。川原で生まれた子どもたちはここで魚を追いかけ、遊び、育ってきました。

大人たちは石木川の清流で美味しい米や野菜を作り、元気な子どもを育ててきました。そして、今もここには赤ちゃんからお年寄りまで約60人が暮らしています。お花見、ホタル祭り、流しそうめん、グランドゴルフ等々、何かといえば皆が集まって食べて飲んで語って楽しむ様は、まるで1つの大家族のようです。今の日本がどこかに置き忘れてきた風景と人々の絆がしっかりと残っている、まさに絶滅危惧部落かもしれません。

“Kobaru”, the proposed building site for the Ishiki Dam, enjoys Nanohana in the spring and cosmos in full bloom in autumn. It is home to fireflies dancing wildly during the summer nights. Kobaru is also an exceptional habitat for various precious species such as the brown dippers, crested kingfishers, leopard frogs, and Onagasanae (gomphidae) which are categorized as Threatened I Species in Nagasaki Prefecture’s Red Data Book. The Kasumi Salamander, Yamato cobitis, Freyers Purple Emperor butterflies, Kurosanae (gomphidae), and Ojirosanae (gomphidae) are categorized as Threatened II Species. The Ishiki River that runs in the middle of this land is a stream so small in size that it barely shows in photographs and closely resembles the stream mentioned in a popluar children’s song called “Haru no Ogawa” (Streams in Springtime). Children born in Kobaru have grown up right here, chasing fish and playing in and along these waters.

The adult folks here grow very delicious rice and vegetables using the clear water from the Ishiki River, raising healthy children. There are approximately 60 people from infants to elders who still live in Kobaru. They all gather together for various occasions such as ohanami (party under the cherry blossoms), fireflies festival, nagashi somen (flowing noodles in pipes fashioned out of bamboo halves), and ground golf, etc. People enjoy eating, drinking, and talking at those events as if though they are one big family. This village is perhaps an endangered community, where the remnants of places where a deep connection between the people and the beautiful sceneries forgotten somewhere along the way by the Japanese remain firmly intact.

5 13世帯60名の暮らしを犠牲にしてまで必要だろうか? Do we really need the dam by sacrificing the lives of 13 households with 60 people?

私たち日本人は誰でも財産権や居住権といった人権が憲法によって保障されています。個人の財産は誰からも侵されてはならないはずです。しかし、そこには公共の福祉に反しない限りという制約があります。長崎県や佐世保市は、石木ダム建設は県民市民の公共の福祉に資するものとして、それを妨げている川原住民の土地は強制的に取得しても良いとの判断で、現在強制収用のための手続きを進めています。

昨年9月に収用裁決申請された4世帯の農地についてはすでに収用委員会での審理を終え、後は判断を待つばかりとなっています。今年1月には、宅地を含む新たな土地の収用裁決申請を目指して県は立入調査を試みましたが、地元住民や支援者の反対で調査はできませんでした。もしも宅地が収用裁決されたらどうなるでしょう。明渡し期日までに住民は出ていかねばなりません。それに従わなければ、知事は行政代執行を命じることができ、人々が暮らしている家を取り壊すことができます。しかし、戦後民主主義国家として歩んできたこの国の古今東西、13軒もの家を取り壊し60人もの人々を強制的に追い出してまで実現した公共事業はありません。長崎県はそれをやろうというのでしょうか?やれるというのでしょうか?

地権者の1人は佐世保市議会の石木ダム建設促進特別委員会で、次のような意見陳述をおこないました。「私は家が取り壊されることになったら、柱に体を縛り付けてでも抵抗するだろう。取り壊されても、そこに小屋を建て住み続けるだろう。小屋も壊されたら、テントを張って暮らすだろう。私たちは命をかけてふる里を守る覚悟です」と。

そこまで地元の人を犠牲にしても必要なダムなのか、今こそ私たち一人一人がしっかり考えるべき時です。

We Japanese citizens are entitled to human rights such as the Property Rights and Rights of Abode guaranteed by the Constitution. No one is supposed to invade into one’s personal properties. However, there is a condition stipulating protection only if it does not infringe on the public welfare. Nagasaki Prefecture and Sasebo City, based on the notion that the Ishiki Dam contributes to the welfare of people in the Prefecture and the City, decided that properties owned by the Kobaru locals who are preventing the dam from being built could be forcibly acquired. They are now taking procedures to proceed with the compulsory acquisition.

The Expropriation Committee has completed its examinations on the farmland of 4 families for which the adjudication to expropriate their land were submitted in September 2014, leaving us only to wait for the final decision. In January 2015, Nagasaki Prefecture attempted to conduct an inspection in order to apply for expropriation of more lands including residential land, however, they were not able to proceed due to the actions taken by local residents and the supporters who opposed. If the residential lands are to be expropriated, residents will need to leave their house by the imposed deadline. If they do not obey, the Governor of Nagasaki has the power to order an administrative subrogation and destroy the homes where the people still live in. Throughout all the years since Japan proceeded as a democratic nation postwar, there is no record of a public enterprise which goes to the extent of demolishing as many as 13 homes and forcibly evicting 60 people having been realized. Is Nagasaki Prefecture attempting to realize this? Do they think that they are capable of doing so?

One landowner made the following statement of opinion at the Promoting Committee of Ishiki Dam Construction in Sasebo City Council:

“If my house were to be demolished, I will most likely tie myself to the pillar in my house and oppose. Even if my house gets taken down, I would build a small shack and continue to live there. If even that shack gets taken down, I would put up a tent and live there. We are prepared to put our lives on the line to protect our homeland.”

We are now at a point where each and every one of us should take the time to thoroughly examine whether this dam, that will destroy the local people’s lives to such an extent, is truly necessary.